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UN envoy warns of trauma to children in Syria war

  • FILE - In this Sunday, Aug. 26, 2012 file photo, Syrian children, who fled their home with their family due to fighting between the Syrian army and the rebels, lie on the ground, while they and others take refuge at the Bab Al-Salameh border crossing, in hopes of entering one of the refugee camps in Turkey, near the Syrian town of Azaz. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen, File)

    FILE - In this Sunday, Aug. 26, 2012 file photo, Syrian children, who fled their home with their family due to fighting between the Syrian army and the rebels, lie on the ground, while they and others take refuge at the Bab Al-Salameh border crossing, in hopes of entering one of the refugee camps in Turkey, near the Syrian town of Azaz. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen, File)

  • FILE - In this Sunday, March 11, 2012 file photo, a morgue worker burns a bandage to bind the hands of a boy who died from his wounds during heavy fighting between Syrian rebels and the government forces in Idlib, north Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File)

    FILE - In this Sunday, March 11, 2012 file photo, a morgue worker burns a bandage to bind the hands of a boy who died from his wounds during heavy fighting between Syrian rebels and the government forces in Idlib, north Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File)

  • FILE - In this Tuesday, Jan. 8, 2013 file photo, Syrian refugees pose for a photograph after their tents flooded from the rain, at a temporary refugee camp, in the eastern Lebanese town of Al-Faour near the border with Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla, File)

    FILE - In this Tuesday, Jan. 8, 2013 file photo, Syrian refugees pose for a photograph after their tents flooded from the rain, at a temporary refugee camp, in the eastern Lebanese town of Al-Faour near the border with Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla, File)

  • FILE - In this Tuesday, Dec. 11, 2012 file photo, Abdullah Ahmed, 10, who suffered burns in a Syrian government airstrike and fled his home with his family, stands outside their tent at a camp for displaced Syrians in the village of Atmeh, Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen, File)

    FILE - In this Tuesday, Dec. 11, 2012 file photo, Abdullah Ahmed, 10, who suffered burns in a Syrian government airstrike and fled his home with his family, stands outside their tent at a camp for displaced Syrians in the village of Atmeh, Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen, File)

  • FILE - In this Thursday March 14, 2013 file photo, a Syrian refugee girl carries her sister, as she listens to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR, chief Antonio Guterres, not seen, during his visit to a Syrian refugee camp, in Ketermaya village southeast of Beirut, Lebanon. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate.(AP Photo/Hussein Malla, File)

    FILE - In this Thursday March 14, 2013 file photo, a Syrian refugee girl carries her sister, as she listens to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR, chief Antonio Guterres, not seen, during his visit to a Syrian refugee camp, in Ketermaya village southeast of Beirut, Lebanon. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate.(AP Photo/Hussein Malla, File)

  • FILE - In this Thursday, March 8, 2012 file photo, Ahmed, center, mourns his father Abdulaziz Abu Ahmed Khrer, who was killed by a Syrian Army sniper, during his funeral in Idlib, north Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File)

    FILE - In this Thursday, March 8, 2012 file photo, Ahmed, center, mourns his father Abdulaziz Abu Ahmed Khrer, who was killed by a Syrian Army sniper, during his funeral in Idlib, north Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File)

  • FILE - In this Wednesday, Aug. 15 2012 file photo, Syrian children flash victory signs as they wait with their families at the Syrian side of Bab Al-Salam border to cross to one of the refugee camps in Turkey, in the town of Azaz on the outskirts of Aleppo, Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate.(AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra, File)

    FILE - In this Wednesday, Aug. 15 2012 file photo, Syrian children flash victory signs as they wait with their families at the Syrian side of Bab Al-Salam border to cross to one of the refugee camps in Turkey, in the town of Azaz on the outskirts of Aleppo, Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate.(AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra, File)

  • FILE - In this Sunday, Aug. 26, 2012 file photo, Syrian children, who fled their home with their family due to fighting between the Syrian army and the rebels, lie on the ground, while they and others take refuge at the Bab Al-Salameh border crossing, in hopes of entering one of the refugee camps in Turkey, near the Syrian town of Azaz. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen, File)
  • FILE - In this Sunday, March 11, 2012 file photo, a morgue worker burns a bandage to bind the hands of a boy who died from his wounds during heavy fighting between Syrian rebels and the government forces in Idlib, north Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File)
  • FILE - In this Tuesday, Jan. 8, 2013 file photo, Syrian refugees pose for a photograph after their tents flooded from the rain, at a temporary refugee camp, in the eastern Lebanese town of Al-Faour near the border with Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla, File)
  • FILE - In this Tuesday, Dec. 11, 2012 file photo, Abdullah Ahmed, 10, who suffered burns in a Syrian government airstrike and fled his home with his family, stands outside their tent at a camp for displaced Syrians in the village of Atmeh, Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen, File)
  • FILE - In this Thursday March 14, 2013 file photo, a Syrian refugee girl carries her sister, as she listens to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR, chief Antonio Guterres, not seen, during his visit to a Syrian refugee camp, in Ketermaya village southeast of Beirut, Lebanon. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate.(AP Photo/Hussein Malla, File)
  • FILE - In this Thursday, March 8, 2012 file photo, Ahmed, center, mourns his father Abdulaziz Abu Ahmed Khrer, who was killed by a Syrian Army sniper, during his funeral in Idlib, north Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File)
  • FILE - In this Wednesday, Aug. 15 2012 file photo, Syrian children flash victory signs as they wait with their families at the Syrian side of Bab Al-Salam border to cross to one of the refugee camps in Turkey, in the town of Azaz on the outskirts of Aleppo, Syria. The U.N. warns that Syria’s war is creating a generation of children who will grow up illiterate and filled with hate.(AP Photo/ Khalil Hamra, File)

Abdullah, a 9-year-old orphaned by Syria’s civil war, was piled into a van by his uncle as gunfire rattled around them. One of the last things the boy says he saw in his hometown was the uncle falling, shot, as the van full of strangers took him away on a treacherous, three-day journey to neighboring Lebanon.

Once in Beirut, the boy fell into the hands of a criminal gang specialized in exploiting the most vulnerable victims of the conflict next door. They put him to work selling flowers and gum on the street, beating him if he didn’t bring them enough money.

The conflict that has ravaged Syria for more than 2½ years has hit the country’s children hard. Out of an estimated 93,000 killed, about 7,000 are children below the age of 15. Tens of thousands are believed to have been wounded. Hundreds of thousands of children have had their lives upended, fleeing their homes with their families either to different parts of Syria or abroad. Unknown numbers have been detained.

And untold numbers have witnessed violence, anything from bombardment of their neighborhoods to the sight of dead bodies fished from rivers or pulled from streets.

Syria “will have to face a generation of children who lost their childhood, have a lot of hate and are illiterate,” Leila Zerrougui, the United Nations’s special representative for children and armed conflict, said yesterday. She spoke in Beirut after a three-day visit inside Syria, where she met with both government officials and rebel commanders fighting to topple President Bashar Assad’s regime.

Education is one of the most obvious problems for the child victims of the conflict in the country of 24 million people. A recent report by the Britain-based charity Save the Children estimated that hundreds of thousands of children have not attended school in the past two years. It warned that the civil war is reversing one of Syria’s main pre-war achievements – in 2010, nearly all children of school age had completed primary school.

Inside Syria, thousands of schools have been destroyed. Others serve as shelters for displaced families. Some five million people have been driven from their homes, fleeing either elsewhere in Syria or abroad, about half of them children under 18.

For those who flee into Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon, Iraq and elsewhere, the U.N. has set up education programs in refugee camps. But it is struggling to keep up with demand – and most of the 1.7 million Syrian refugees don’t live in camps. Zerrougui estimated that around half of the nearly 900,000 refugee children do not go to school, and 70 percent of those that do drop out.

“By not providing education, you are robbing the children of their future,” Yoka Brandi, deputy executive director of UNICEF, told the Associated Press in Damascus. “Education is a protection measure, because when children are in school, they are less vulnerable.”

Abdullah never entered primary school. By the time he should have been starting first grade, his hometown in the northern province of Idlib was engulfed by fierce fighting between Assad’s forces and the rebels. At some point earlier this year, both his parents were killed, caught in a cross-fire during clashes.

“I wanted to run away because I was afraid I will die,” said Abdullah, who is now living in the church-run House of Hope shelter for street children in the mountains overlooking Beirut. He said that he was fleeing with his uncle, who took him to a van taking people into Lebanon.

After loading Abdullah in the van, the uncle was shot before he could join him, Abdullah said. It took three days to make it to Lebanon, crossing military checkpoints and through front lines of fighting. He remembered the car being stopped by men with guns and at times he hid on the floor, he said.

The shelter requested that he and another boy interviewed be identified only by their first names.

In the office of the shelter’s director, the frail-looking Abdullah spoke hesitantly, often falling silent. He couldn’t say exactly when his parents were killed or when he fled to Lebanon. When asked about his life since reaching Lebanon, he turned away and grew restless. He slid off the chair and asked whether he could leave, and left the room soon after.

About a month ago, he was brought to the House of Hope after the police picked him up for working illegally on the street, the shelter’s Director Maher Tabarawi said. Like many Syrian boys and girls who end up alone in Lebanon, Abdullah ended up in the hands of a criminal gang that put him to work, Tabarawi said.

“It was either jail for juvenile delinquents or our place, so we took him in,” Tabarawi said of Abdullah.

Another boy, Khunder, a 14-year-old from Syria’s Turkoman ethnic minority, said he fled alone from the northern city of Aleppo after his father was shot to death while trying to move the family from their house on the front line. The city has been a battle zone divided between rebels and the regime since last year.

“There was a lot of fighting in our neighborhood and I ran away,” Khunder said. He left behind his mother and three brothers. In Lebanon, he too ended up forced to work by a gang.

House of Hope was established 13 years ago to help Lebanese street children. Most of the 70 children in the two-story house are now Syrians, aged three to 18 years old, Tabarawi said. Volunteers teach the children how to read and write.

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