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Judge Steven Rhodes freezes challenges to Detroit bankruptcy

  • Protesters march outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Protesters march outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A lawyer for Detroit argued Wednesday that the city would be “irreparably harmed” if lawsuits challenging a multibillion-dollar bankruptcy are allowed to go forward, the first dispute in the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history.  Retirees anxious about their pensions have won favorable rulings from an Ingham County judge that could slow down or even derail the bankruptcy filed just last week.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. A lawyer for Detroit argued Wednesday that the city would be “irreparably harmed” if lawsuits challenging a multibillion-dollar bankruptcy are allowed to go forward, the first dispute in the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history. Retirees anxious about their pensions have won favorable rulings from an Ingham County judge that could slow down or even derail the bankruptcy filed just last week.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Protesters carry a sign outside the Levin Federal Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Protesters carry a sign outside the Levin Federal Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Protesters carry a sign outside the Levin Federal Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Protesters carry a sign outside the Levin Federal Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Dan McNamara, president of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, speaks to firefighters outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Dan McNamara, president of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, speaks to firefighters outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  •  Tony Brown, a Department of Transportation retiree, listens to union leaders speak in Detroit, Monday, July 22, 2013. Detroit’s bankruptcy filing means that thousands of retirees could face changes to their expected payouts, despite being guaranteed in a state constitution. Will the bankruptcy filing open new legal questions about what cash strapped cities and municipalities can do when pension benefits grow far larger than what they can afford? (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Tony Brown, a Department of Transportation retiree, listens to union leaders speak in Detroit, Monday, July 22, 2013. Detroit’s bankruptcy filing means that thousands of retirees could face changes to their expected payouts, despite being guaranteed in a state constitution. Will the bankruptcy filing open new legal questions about what cash strapped cities and municipalities can do when pension benefits grow far larger than what they can afford? (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Bill Nowling, spokesperson to Detroit Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr, speaks outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Bill Nowling, spokesperson to Detroit Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr, speaks outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Protesters sit across the street from the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

    Protesters sit across the street from the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Protesters march outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A lawyer for Detroit argued Wednesday that the city would be “irreparably harmed” if lawsuits challenging a multibillion-dollar bankruptcy are allowed to go forward, the first dispute in the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history.  Retirees anxious about their pensions have won favorable rulings from an Ingham County judge that could slow down or even derail the bankruptcy filed just last week.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Protesters carry a sign outside the Levin Federal Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Protesters carry a sign outside the Levin Federal Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Dan McNamara, president of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, speaks to firefighters outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  •  Tony Brown, a Department of Transportation retiree, listens to union leaders speak in Detroit, Monday, July 22, 2013. Detroit’s bankruptcy filing means that thousands of retirees could face changes to their expected payouts, despite being guaranteed in a state constitution. Will the bankruptcy filing open new legal questions about what cash strapped cities and municipalities can do when pension benefits grow far larger than what they can afford? (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Firefighters protest outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013. Detroit's bankruptcy is hitting a courtroom for the first time as a judge considers what to do with challenges from retirees who claim their pensions are protected by the Michigan Constitution. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Bill Nowling, spokesperson to Detroit Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr, speaks outside the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
  • Protesters sit across the street from the Theodore Levin United States Courthouse, in Detroit, Wednesday, July 24, 2013.  A federal judge agreed with Detroit on Wednesday and stopped any lawsuits challenging the city's bankruptcy, declaring his courtroom the exclusive venue for legal action in the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

A federal judge yesterday swept aside lawsuits challenging Detroit’s bankruptcy, settling the first major dispute in the scramble to get a leg up just days after the largest filing by a local government in U.S. history.

After two hours of arguments, U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Steven Rhodes made clear he’s in charge. He granted Detroit’s request to put a permanent freeze on three lawsuits filed in Ingham County, Mich., including another judge’s extraordinary decision that Gov. Rick Snyder trampled the Michigan Constitution and acted illegally in approving the Chapter 9 filing.

That ruling and others had threatened to derail the bankruptcy.

Questions about Detroit’s eligibility to turn itself around through bankruptcy “are within this court’s exclusive jurisdiction,” Rhodes said.

He said nothing in federal law or the U.S. Constitution gives a state court a dual role. It was a victory for Detroit, which had warned that it would be “irreparably harmed” if it had to deal with lawsuits in state courts while trying to restructure $18 billion in debt with thousands of creditors.

“Widespread litigation . . . can only confuse the parties, confuse the case and create serious barriers,” attorney Heather Lennox told the judge.

Creditors “will have their day in court” – bankruptcy court, she said.

The courtroom was jammed with lawyers representing creditors as well as rank-and-file city employees and retirees eager to know the outcome. Some wore T-shirts that said, “Detroit vs. Everybody.”

Detroit emergency manager Kevyn Orr, who recommended bankruptcy, sat in the front row for part of the hearing. Outside the courthouse, protesters held a banner with a message for Wall Street: “Cancel Detroit’s debt. The banks owe us.”

Detroit has about 21,000 retirees – police officers, firefighters, city hall clerks, trash haulers, bus drivers – who are owed money and fear their income is at risk in a bankruptcy. Orr has said the city has underfunded obligations of about $3.5 billion for pensions and $5.7 billion for retiree health coverage.

The Michigan Constitution states that public pensions “shall not be diminished or impaired.” An Ingham County judge cited that provision last week when she ordered Snyder and other officials to take no further action in the Detroit bankruptcy.

Sharon Levine, an attorney for a union that represents city workers, urged the bankruptcy judge to let those lawsuits run their course. She said there’s no federal insurance for public pensions once they’re broken, unlike pensions at private employers.

“Our members who participate at most are at or below $19,000 a year. There is no safety net,” Levine said.

Although Rhodes ruled in favor of Detroit, he said opponents will have opportunities to make the same arguments in his court in the future. He has many critical issues ahead, including whether Detroit really is broke and entitled to greatly reduce or wipe out debts. The process could last a year or more.

Michael Nicholson, general counsel for the United Auto Workers, was disappointed with Rhodes’s decision.

“State courts have the power to decide what the state constitution means,” Nicholson said outside court. “In our view, retirees’ rights are a matter of Michigan constitutional rights.”

Snyder signed off on Detroit’s bankruptcy last Thursday, calling it the only practical choice for a city whose population has plummeted to 700,000 from 1.8 million decades ago. Detroit’s long-term debt has become an urban millstone.

The governor called Rhodes’s decision “excellent” and said it allows one place to settle the city’s finances.

In March, Snyder appointed Orr, a bankruptcy expert, as Detroit’s emergency manager.

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